Глобальное управление: проблемы становления и развития
The structure of the current stage of global management might be seen as a pyramid of three basic segments. The pyramid top, or the upper segment, is the United Nations Organization. This segment might be also added with the leading world powers influencing the global agenda, the G8 and G20, the European Union. The second segment of global management includes the UN specialized establishments, and the world intergovernmental organizations beyond the United Nations frameworks. The third segment includes the influential nongovernmental organizations (the World Confederation of Labor, the Socialist International, the Green Peace, etc.), the bodies of emerging global civil society, the top biggest transnational companies. 2. Nowadays, the global management is mostly perceptible in the economy, finance, trade. In particular, through the institutions set up by the Breton Woods conference (1944) — the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB). Both banks, being the UN establishments, operate rather independently, focusing their efforts at regulating the financial situation in the world. The IMF, as well as the WB, are often being reproached for being pro-American in their activities and for inefficiency of their recommendations to overcome crisis situations. That is why topical is the issue on reconstructing the IMF activities, expand the developing countries possibilities to more effectively participate in decision-making. Such initiative was put forward by Russia in June 2012 at the G20 summit in Mexico, having suggested, together with the other BRICS countries, to increase at their own expense the IMF currency reserves and the corresponding quotas in the bank’s capital share. 3. A major section of global management is the European Union. Being a regional integration by the geographical criteria, the EU, with its 27 member-countries, 500-million population and almost a quarter of the world gross production, plays a major role in controlling not just European, but also the world processes. The European Union is one of the two (with the USA) centers where the ideas of global control come from. But, unlike the USA, the EU practices the principle of super-national management with simultaneous voluntary self-restriction of the sovereignty by its member-states. Despite the present troubles within the euro zone, the European Union remains the most advanced integration on the planet, being, as it is, the laboratory and platform to actually test and probe many elements of not just regional but also the global management. 4. There are some issues of principal importance on which no common opinion is achieved. They include — In global management, how the functions are to be distributed between the nations and super-national administrative bodies? Can the hierarchical, vertical principle of management be combined with the horizontal, network principle; and, if it is possible, how to implement this? How to secure the legitimacy of super-national management state governance bodies without undermining the prerogatives of the sovereign states?
управление, пирамида глобального управления, ООН, мировое правительство, иерархический и сетевой принцип управления.